The Fold, a lovely organic market garden and care farm. Good for people and for wildlife, yet will it benefit from Brexit?
For more than four decades UK food and farming policies and practices have been hugely influenced by policies and funding stemming from the European Union. The whole Brexit process will be slow to implement and could further damage rural Britain as many good schemes come to an end. However Brexit provides a massive opportunity to create new policies and practices. A group of 88 organisations have written to David Davis, the Secretary of State overseeing Brexit, and to Theresa May. The letter stresses that many positive outcomes, in terms of public health, wellbeing, rural employment, biodiversity and global poverty can all be achieved with the right policies. I hope this government listens to this group and recognises their collective wisdom.
The number of farms has been declining in Britain for many decades. The EU Area-based payment system, as interpreted by the British government, has intensified this trend. Big, already wealthy farmers, mainly farming in ways that are not ecologically sustainable have received huge subsidies. Many of the most innovative, socially inclusive and ecologically sustainable farming systems are being pioneered on tiny land holdings that have been below the radar of these payment systems. I hope that these smaller scale projects get more support in future. The Landworkers’ Alliance, one of the 88 organisations behind the letter to David Davis, makes the case on their website.
Last week Colette and I went to visit The Fold, a small organic market garden and care farm selling a great variety of vegetables directly to the public through a few local shops and markets. It is typical of the farms that enhance biodiversity, sustainability and social inclusion yet have found grant assistance difficult to obtain, and which would stand to benefit if David Davis and Theresa May listen to the organisations behind that letter.
In the summer of 2011 I visited the lovely small Austrian town of Gussing. I’ve used it as an example of the intelligent and sustainable use of biomass in lots of talks, blogs and articles. The town, and indeed the whole surrounding region, now use wood chip gasification and anaerobic digesters as the basis of their energy economy in a way that seems to work for both ecological and economic benefits. Yet wood chip gasification remains highly controversial, especially in UK where several projects seem to have ended in either financial or technological failure. With most innovative sectors of the economy there is a high rate of failure. However several environmental groups argue that large scale biomass projects are fundamentally unsustainable. Biomass technologies are many and various, and I would argue some have huge potential to be beneficial.
Orthios have plans to build two large biomass projects in Wales, the first on the site of an old aluminium smelter in Anglesey and the second on the site of an old steel works at Port Talbot in South Wales. They would import large volumes of woodchip (from forestry stewardship approved sources) to put through a gasification process, generate electricity and use both the surplus heat and the CO2 in a combined aquaculture and hydroponic system to produce king prawns and vegetables, and the gasification-pyrolysis process would also make bio-char, a way of long term carbon sequestration and also of improving soil fertility. They also plan education, research and development centres at each of the Eco Parks. This basket of interlinked technologies is something I’d read about as a theoretical possibility, and had followed various experimental projects over many years. It seems really good to me that a company are planning to bring all these elements together and at scale. The fact that SinoFortone, a Chinese investment group, have put £2 billion into the projects seems to indicate that they believe all the aspects can be made to work successfully together. The Anglesey project could be operational by 2017 and producing a very useful 299MW of electricity, along with sizable quantities of shellfish, marine vegetables and Biochar. I for one am keen to see this project go ahead, and very interested to see if it can be made to work as successfully as its promoters suggest.
The last few weeks I’ve been spending a lot of time in my vegetable garden. The great annual tidal wave of soft fruit is there to be picked, tomatoes, courgettes, cucumbers and salads are all there in abundance. The field beans (rather like broad beans, but even hardier) are mainly harvested by now: some we’ve eaten as a cooked vegetable in all manner of dishes, a favourite being lightly cooked and marinated in a dressing and served like an Italian antipasto, also we’ve frozen lots for the winter. I’m sure my urban garden is now producing more food than my old smallholding ever did, despite being a tiny fraction of the size.
One of the great joys this year has been the abundance of wildlife. The thrushes nesting in the neighbours’ sycamore tree have raised at least one brood of chicks. Hearing them crack open snails on the concrete path one realises the importance of helpful predators, and we’ve plenty of frogs and toads eating the slugs and ladybirds and spiders to eat the aphids. Sparrows and blackbirds seem to be breeding better than ever and from time to time a sparrowhawk comes to pick off the odd one. In winter sometimes we hear a tawny owl. All pretty good for a city centre garden! I hear goshawks are now nesting in Berlin. I’d love them to come over here. Pigeons ate a lot of my young pea and climbing bean plants this year, and pecked a lot of holes in the chard, so having some local goshawks to cull the pigeons would certainly help my vegetable production!
Last winter I read George Monbiot’s book ‘Feral’. A fascinating read about re-wilding the British countryside. Current farming practices have denuded much of our rural biodiversity, and in many instances our urban landscapes are better for wildlife. Our garden has lots of species of bumble bee this year, and in large numbers. Gardens and allotments have a vital role to play both in terms of food production and in terms of providing a refuge for wildlife, and joy for us humans.
WaterFX’s Aqua4 solar desalination: modular and scaleable
Solar powered desalination is potentially one of those amazing disruptive technologies which could change human history for the better. It could secure water supplies for water stressed communities in the hot dry tropics, and open up desert areas for agriculture, energy generation and human settlement. It could be a real game changer. A number of exciting technologies exist, some old, some new, but none as yet deployed at scale. I’ve written about the Seawater Greenhouses developed by Charlie Paton, and adapted into the Saltwater Greenhouses that Philipp Saumweber and Sundrop Farms have built in Australia and Qatar. Sundrop Farms is planning a major expansion this year. Exciting stuff.
Meanwhile in California another small start up company, WaterFX, has just opened the first of a new kind of solar desalination process and are putting it to a new use. I’d always thought about using solar desalination in the context of taking sea water and making it into fresh water, and therefore of use in coastal locations. WaterFX is using their Aqua4 concentrated solar still at Panoche in California’s dry central valley to recycle polluted agricultural irrigation water. As well as producing fresh water they can extract a range of useful and saleable products from the polluted water, including salt, gypsum, magnesium sulphate, selenium and boron.
Also in the news at the moment are a couple of interesting experimental scale concentrating solar power breakthroughs by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The first uses the sun’s energy to extract very pure zinc oxide from industrial waste. The second utilizes concentrating solar power to produce syngas (a hydrogen / carbon monoxide mix) from various waste materials, which could be used as an energy storage medium, or directly in industrial processes such as cement manufacture.
In my last blog I used the global decline of bees as an example of the battles between ecologically and economically driven value systems. By coincidence a few days later the BBC showed an excellent programme called ‘What’s killing our bees?’
The programme was written and presented by Bill Turnbull, who as bee keeper and journalist asked good questions as to the causes of the bee decline, but typically with our media was then rather cautious as to making strong policy recommendations.
The programme showed that, as we might expect, the issue is complex. Basically it argued that there are three main issues undermining bees: the varroa mite, pesticides and changes to agricultural practice, with the added short term problem of bad weather.
One interesting fact is that now urban beekeepers in cities like London and Paris are producing more and perhaps better quality honey than can be produced in the surrounding agricultural hinterlands. This it seems is due to the rich mix of flowering plants and lack of pesticides in cities, and also possibly partly due to the urban heat island effect. There was one interesting piece of research being done planting wild flower borders in arable fields which seemed to be having positive results.
Clearly many things need to change in order to protect the bees, on whose pollination services we are so dependent. I would like to see three areas of change: the banning of more of the most damaging pesticides, of which neonicotinoids are just the tip of the iceberg, a major shift from monocultures to polycultures including as many species of flowering plants as possible and the preservation and promotion of maximum genetic diversity in bee populations, especially of the British native black honeybee which due to its long adaptation to our climate seems more resistant to both varroa mites and bad weather than the generally kept European honeybee.
The last couple of blogs may seem a bit nerdy. Concentrating solar thermal power is not yet a widely used technology and not appropriate for the British climate. I will continue to write about it from time to time because I believe it to have enormous potential as a clean source of power for much of the world. However I will continue to write about a great breadth of other things that show that a better future is possible for humanity. Today I want to write about hunger.
Genetically modified rice is just about to be planted in the Philippines. Enhancing the vitamin A content of the rice can prevent various diseases, but only to the same extent as eating carrots, squash, pumpkin or other vitamin A rich food with the rice has done for millennia. The vast coverage of both pro and anti GM opinions seems to miss a couple of basic points. People are hungry and malnourished because they are poor: overcoming extreme inequality is absolutely essential, without that the introduction of GM crops will make little difference. Today humanity already grows enough food to feed all 7 billion of us, but much gets wasted or fails to get to those who cannot express economic ‘demand’ despite nutritional need. As seems probable global population will reach 9 billion or more by mid-century there is clearly a need to raise agricultural production along with combating inequality. There are many ways in which this can be sustainably done, often with multiple benefits to multiple stakeholders. Compared to some of these lesser known ideas, technologies and land management systems the claims of GM seem to be so much hype. I have written about a number of these inspirational alternatives on this blog over the past couple of years. For example the basket of technologies in use in the Qatar project I blogged about in January has the power to transform deserts into food and energy exporters in a way that makes the claims of GM seem very weak. My next blog will be on the dramatic benefits of good pasture management. It is one of those classic multi-win situations: a carbon negative way to increase productivity and the incomes of poor farmers, counter soil erosion and desertification, increase soil fertility and biodiversity, and it could be argued fosters political inclusivity. What’s not to like.
We need to make some big infrastructure investments in the UK. The question is which ones, and for what outcomes.
Currently the Coalition government seems set to spend £100 billion on replacing Trident. A vast waste of money on anachronistic Cold War technology totally unsuited to the World we now find ourselves in. Let’s scrape it and use the money elsewhere in the economy.
Phase One of the HS2 high speed rail link from London to Birmingham looks set to go ahead, at a cost estimated to be between £15.8 and £17.4 billion. The full route up to Manchester and Leeds will cost about £30 billion. Transporting larger numbers of people a bit more quickly between our major cities seems a somewhat limited aspiration, given the cost, and the impact on the local environment. We could do better.
The London Array has recently started generating electricity. The first phase, consisting of 175 Siemens 3.6 MW turbines, giving a capacity of 630 MW and costing 2.2 billion Euros or approximately £1.76 billion should be complete within a couple of months. This will make a useful contribution to the UK energy supply at a reasonable cost.
A potential infrastructure project with multiple benefits has been promoted by David Weight on the Claverton Energy discussion group, and into which our government should conduct a feasibility study. Essentially the plan is to build a large new canal, following the 310ft contour line, as advocated by Pownall in 1942, but extending northwards at least as far as Kielder Water, and preferably into Scotland’s Southern Uplands. The proposal is to bring water from the areas of surplus in Scotland, Northumberland and Wales to the areas of greatest shortage in the southeast of England, for agricultural, industrial and domestic use: very useful as we adapt to a changing climate.
The canal would also be used for transport, especially for heavy goods such as timber for biomass, and also for recreational use. The really exciting aspect of the proposal is for it to be used for energy storage and transmission. Water cooled High Voltage Direct Current cables would be laid along the route, bringing the abundant renewable energy from Scotland and Wales to the centres of maximum demand in the major English cities. The canal itself could be used for pumped storage hydro by having subsidiary reservoirs at higher and lower levels along the route, but especially in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. Many existing thermal power stations such as Drax are already located along the route and increasingly using biomass to replace some of their coal consumption. New biomass power stations, fitted with carbon capture and storage, may be located along the route. Surplus heat from all these power stations could be fed into district heating systems and used in intensive greenhouse horticulture.
The canal might also be a useful route for fibre optic data transmission, and high energy consumption data centres might be located in the Southern Uplands where the renewable energy potential is most abundant. There would be huge scope for new urban development, and it has been suggested that this planning gain might be used to pay for the whole project. Nature reserves could be strung all along the route maximizing its biodiversity and recreational potential. A cycle path could easily be incorporated. At an estimated cost of between £11.1 and £18.0 billion this could be a very good investment: certainly worth a detailed feasibility study.
(Organic Farming in India)
I often start my talks with a slide of Martin Rees, the Astronomer Royal, with a quote of his “this is a crucial century. The Earth has existed for 45 million centuries. But this is the first time when one species, ours, can determine — for good or ill — the future of the entire biosphere.” Of course there is plenty of evidence to suggest we are wrecking the biosphere and therefore our own future. There is, as readers of this blog will be aware, also a growing body of evidence to suggest a radically better alternative is possible and is in many places being made manifest.
Two key footsteps toward a better future are renewable energy and organic agriculture. Some small places such as Varese in Liguria, Italy, have long worked toward 100% renewables energy and 100% organic agriculture. The really exciting news this week is that 100% renewables, for heat, electricity and transport fuels is now official government policy in Denmark. The aim is to achieve this ambitious goal by 2050, with lots of key dates along the way, such as banning natural gas boilers in new build from next year.
The other really exciting thing I heard this week is the growth of organic farming in India. The Indian state of Sikkim hopes to be 100% organic by 2015 and Uttarakhand, Nagaland and Mizoram intend to follow. Some of the ways organic farming is being developed in India are really innovative. Ashmeet Kapoor and his team at Jagriti Agro Tech are using modern communications technology to help lots of small organic farmers link together and market directly to consumers, by-passing very inefficient, wasteful and exploitative supply chains and so getting cheaper, fresher organic produce to consumers while helping small farmers make a better living.
What about 100% renewable energy and 100% organic agriculture as a Herefordshire, UK or Global policy goal!
(maize and Inga alley cropping)
When human populations were tiny and the forests seemingly limitless slash and burn may have been a sustainable form of agriculture, but that era is long since passed: now we need something better. Feeding 7 plus billion of us, lowering atmospheric Co2 and overcoming poverty requires humanity to find better ways to manage fragile tropical forest ecosystems.
One of the best practices has been pioneered by British tropical agronomist Mike Hands and the organisation he founded, The Inga Foundation. He has worked with communities in Central America who practiced slash and burn or swidden agriculture. They were forced to move-on every few years into new areas of forest, but as populations have grown the long periods of fallow are no longer possible and the forest cannot properly regenerate. This is particularly a problem with the poor acidic soils so common in rainforest areas.
The Inga is a family of trees with about 300 species occurring in the tropical Americas, each suited to particular soils and altitudes. Most of these species of Inga germinate quickly, grow rapidly and are tolerant of the poor acidic soils of the region. They fix nitrogen, host mycorrhizal fungi and so aid soil fertility, and their leaves make a wonderful water and soil conserving mulch. They are perfect for alley cropping with maize and beans, provide good shade to valuable cash crops such as coffee, cacao, pepper and vanilla and can be used as a nurse crop to establish mahogany and the inga themselves provide valuable edible fruits and fuelwood.
With the increased fertility afforded by Inga alley cropping, maize, beans and other crops can be grown and rotated year after year on the same land, taking the pressure off the remaining forests and allowing communities to settle permanently, grow more valuable perennial cash crops, increase their incomes and send their children to school.
When I first read about all this in an article in The Ecologist Magazine in 2005 I was really impressed. I’ve cited this as an example of really good land use in numerous talks. Now it is very good to hear that Mike Hands and the Inga Foundation have received a grant of $3 million to fund a 10 year programme to develop this work in the Rio Cuero area of Honduras.
See more here http://www.ingafoundation.org/
(Cultivate Oxfordshire: 5 people, 5 acres)
The Food Programme on Radio 4 is often a very good listen. The edition that was first broadcast on 22/1/12 was particularly good. It looked at a number of examples of new models of growing, buying and selling food, and of people trying to influence the global food economy in positive directions. Colin Tudge and Graham Harvey founded the Oxford Real Farming Conference which is now in its fifth year. Colin Tudge sums up his arguments in nine words “plenty of plants, not much meat, and maximum variety”. A diet that is best for our health, for the environment, and that will feed nine billion of us in years to come should be based on lots of local, ideally organic, fruit and vegetables, with smaller quantities of good quality, local, organic, pasture fed meat. Colin Tudge argues that the UK needs a million more farmers.
These new farmers will be very different from most modern farmers. They will need to pioneer all manner of new ecologically sustainable farming systems that connect in new ways to the people who will eat the produce. They will tend to run very labour intensive operations, using polyculture, permaculture, aquaculture, horticulture, greenhouses and polytunnels. They will be largely community supported, often having social, educational and energy generation roles alongside food production. The food programme mentioned lots of ideas and projects, two of my favourites were Incredible Edible Todmorden and Cultivate Oxfordshire.
The Cultivate project is a group of five young people just starting a five acre market garden in South Oxfordshire. Note the people to land ratio: one person to one acre. At a time when conventional agriculture is arguing that we need ever bigger farm units to make a living these new entrants are moving in exactly the opposite direction. They are a not-for-profit social enterprise, currently raising capital via a community share offer, strongly linked to their local community and pioneering new methods of marketing their produce directly to people wherever demand in the local community seems to be, at school gates, railway stations or wherever. To make this work they’ll need very good support from and communication with their local community. I wish them well.
When I first heard about Incredible Edible Todmorden a few years back I was a bit sceptical as they seemed to be promoting guerrilla gardening which to me as a long time veg grower seemed a bit too chaotic. They’ve certainly proved me wrong. They’ve gone from strength to strength, gaining massive community involvement with every school, the fire station, railway station, council and it seems just about everyone in the town of 15,000 people involved. They have ambitious plans for community self-sufficiency in food and are initiating projects galore, including an integrated aquaculture/horticulture project at the High School that seems to draw on some of the ideas from The New Alchemy Institute and Growing Power systems that I wrote a couple of blogs about in April 2011. Exciting stuff!
Listen to the programme here and follow some of the many links